Finding current toilet technology flushes profits, WVU researcher takes aim at turning yellow into green by recycling urine

The waste flushed down toilets could be a valuable source of resources and profits – and easier on the environment, according to research by a West Virginia University engineer.

Kevin Orner, Benjamin M. Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources assistant professor, is developing technology that can treat urine on-site rather than at a distant, centralized wastewater treatment facility. The technology could reside under a toilet, enabling urine treatment to occur quickly and promoting the recovery of nitrogen, a nutrient that can be sold as fertilizer.

Orner’s findings, published in the journal Environmental Technology, make urine recycling more feasible in terms of integration into existing infrastructure and could reduce the amount of nutrients that enter lakes and rivers. Excessive nutrient discharge can put aquatic ecosystems at risk by promoting the growth of algae that consume dissolved oxygen in the water.

The goal is to transform waste collection and treatment from an environmentally harmful service that costs money to an environmentally beneficial service that makes money.

“You have a toilet in your house and a sewer that brings the waste to a treatment plant that may be miles away,” Orner explained. “There are greenhouse gases involved with building the sewer that is connected to your house and for treating the waste at the plant. To prevent the nutrients from being discharged into your local river, the sewage treatment plant typically uses energy-intensive electric blowers to convert the ammonium in sewage to nitrate and to convert that nitrate into nitrogen gas.”

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Therefore, nitrogen gas goes back into the environment and no useful product arises.

Waste recycling is not a new concept. Farmers have long used manure to enrich soil and urine to repel pests. Processes to turn feces into fertilizer have been implemented on an industrial scale, and infrastructure and programs for recycling human urine are already in place in places like Nairobi, Kenya and Brattleboro, Vermont.

For Orner, he envisions toilets that separate urine and feces, allowing each of those waste products to be collected, treated and converted into a useful commercial product—most often, as agricultural fertilizer.

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The approach Orner sees as most viable requires no power to operate. The design of a urine separation toilet separates solids from liquids, then sends the urine to a nutrient recovery unit that is located in or attached to the toilet itself, or perhaps housed in a residential or commercial basement.

But speed is essential for large-scale implementation. Because toilets typically receive several doses of urine throughout the day, the urine must be treated quickly so it can be released into another unit to make room for the next dose—especially in a system small enough to attach to a toilet.

Orner’s work is significant because, preparing the collection and treatment reservoir by inoculating soil containing helpful microorganisms, adding in carbon pellets to provide a growing surface for bacteria that are key to the treatment process, and using a fill-and-pull procedure. whereby small amounts of treated urine are removed and fresh urine is gradually added, his team was able to significantly speed up treatment – ​​reducing a process that could take weeks to a day in one phase of the study.

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“Circular sanitation” is not yet on the verge of becoming the new normal. High-quality urine-separating toilets look almost identical to current toilets but can be expensive. Cheaper versions may have odors or force users to adopt new behaviors.

Underdeveloped policies around urine-derived fertilizer products are another barrier. And Orner pointed out that most communities’ building codes do not consider this type of technology in their permitting guidelines, although he has worked with the Gold Ribbon Commission on drafting regulations for adoption by state or local governments.

However, these urine-separating toilets exist, not only in Kenya and Vermont, but from Oregon to Paris and the Netherlands. Orner has a colleague in Costa Rica who is “interested in taking the lessons learned from Brattleboro and applying those to Monteverde, an ecotourism community in the Cloud Forest,” Orner said.

“Of course, there is the ‘ew’ factor in dealing with urine,” he added, “but, in fact, urine is not a waste. It has value.”


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